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Carol Ryff

Carol Ryff

Director, Institute on Aging
University of Wisconsin-Madison
cryff@wisc.edu
http://www.aging.wisc.edu/research/affil.php?Ident=55


Carol D. Ryff, Ph.D., is Director of the Institute on Aging and Marie Jahoda Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her research is strongly multidisciplinary and focuses on how various aspects of psychological well-being are contoured by broad social structural influences such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and culture as well as how psychological well-being is linked with biological processes (e.g., neuroendocrine regulation, inflammation, cardiovascular risk) implicated in physical health outcomes. The latter work addresses the mechanisms and pathways through which well-being may confer protection against, or recovery from, illness and disease. Resilience is thus an overarching theme in putting these many levels of analysis (social structural, psychosocial, neurobiological) together. Dr. Ryff currently directs the MIDUS (Midlife in the U.S.) investigation as well as a parallel study in Japan, known as MIDJA (Midlife in Japan). Integrative science, which brings together expertise from across disciplines, each of which contribute important influences on how people age, is her abiding commitment.



Representative Publications
Ryff, C. D. (In Press)Well-being with soul: Science in pursuit of human potential. Perspectives on Psychological Science.

Glei, D. A., Goldman, N., Ryff, C. D., & Weinstein, M. (In Press)Can we determine whether physical limitations are more prevalent in the US than in countries with comparable life expectancy? SSM - Population Health.

Rendina, D. N., Ryff, C. D., & Coe, C. L. (2017). Precipitous dehydroepiandrosterone declines reflect decreased physical vitality and function. he Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 72(6), 747-753.
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Sloan, R. P., Schwarz, E., McKinley, P. S., Weinstein, M., Love, G., Ryff, C., Mroczek, D., Choo, T. H., Lee, S., & Seeman, T. (2017). Vagally-mediated Heart rate variability and indices of well-being: Results of a nationally representative study. Health Psychology, 36(1), 73-81.
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Lee, C., Coe, C. L., & Ryff, C. D. (2017). Social disadvantage, severe child abuse, and biological profiles in adulthood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. Advance online publication.
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Morozink Boylan, J., Tsenkova, V. K., Miyamoto, Y., & Ryff, C. D. (2017). Psychological resources and glucoregulation in Japanese adults: Findings from MIDJA. Health Psychology, 36(5), 449-457.
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Ryff, C. D. (2017). Eudaimonic well-being, inequality, and health: Recent findings and future directions. International Review of Economic, 64(2), 159-178.
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Curtis, D. S., Fuller-Rowell, T. E., El-Sheikh, M., Carnethon, M. R., & Ryff, C. D. (2017). Habitual sleep as a contributor to racial differences in cardiometabolic risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Advance online publication.
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Song, J., Mailick, M. R., Greenberg, J. S., Ryff, C. D., & Lachman, M. E. (2016). Cognitive aging in parents of children with disabilities Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences, 71(5), 821-830.
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Ruini, C., & Ryff, C. D. (2016). Using eudaimonic well-being to improve lives. In A. M. Wood & J. Johnson (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of positive clinical psychology: An integrative approach to studying and improving well-being. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Crowley, O. V., Kimhy, D., McKinley, P. S., Burg, M. M., Schwartz, J. E., Lachman, M. E., Tun, P. A., Ryff, C. D., Seeman, T. E., & Sloan, R. P. (2016). Vagal recovery from cognitive challenge moderates age-related deficits in executive functioning. Research on Aging, 38(4), 504-525.
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Boehm, J. K., Chen, Y., Williams, D. R., Ryff, C. D., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2016). Subjective well-being and cardiometabolic health: An 8-11 year study of midlife adults. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 85, 1-8.
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Tsenkova, V. K., Karlamangla, A. S., & Ryff, C. D. (2016). Parental history of diabetes, positive affect, and diabetes risk in adults: Findings from MIDUS. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50(6), 836-843.
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Miller, R., Stalder, T., Jarczok, M., Almeida, D. M., Badrick, E., Bartels, M., Boomsma, D. I., Coe, C. L., Dekker, M. C. J., Donzella, B., Fischer, J. E., Gunnar, M. R., Kumari, M., Lederbogen, F., Power, C., Ryff, C. D., Subramanian, S. V., Tiemeier, H. (2016). The CIRCORT database: Reference ranges and seasonal changes in diurnal salivary cortisol derived from a meta-dataset comprised of 15 field studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 73, 16-23.
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Levine, C. S., Miyamoto, Y., Markus, H. R., Rigotti, A., Boylan, J. M., Park, J., Kitayama, S., Karasawa, M., Kawakami, N., Coe, C. L., Love, G. D., & Ryff, C. D. (2016). Culture and healthy eating: The role of independence and interdependence in the United States and Japan. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(10), 1335-1348.
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Ryff, C. D. (2016). Eudaimonic well-being and education: Probing the connections. In D. W. Harward (Ed.), Well-being and higher education: A strategy for change and the realization of education's greater purposes (pp. 37-48). Washington, DC: Bringing Theory to Practice.
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Fuller-Rowell, T. E., Curtis, D. S., El-Sheikh, M., Chae, D. H., Boylan, J. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2016). Racial disparities in sleep: The role of neighborhood disadvantage. Sleep Medicine, 27-28, 1-8.
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Yoo, J., Miyamoto, Y., & Ryff, C. D. (2016). Positive affect, social connectedness, and health biomarkers in Japan and the US. Emotion, 16(8), 1137-1146.
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Kirsch, J., & Ryff, C. D. (2016). Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varities of vulnerability. Health Psychology Open, 3(1), 2055102916652390.
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Ryff, C. D., Heller, A. S., Schaefer, S. M., van Reekum, C., & Davidson, R. J. (2016). Purposeful engagement, healthy aging, and the brain. Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports, 3(4), 318-327.
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Lee, C., & Ryff, C. D. (2016). Early parenthood as a link between childhood disadvantage and adult heart problems: A gender-based approach. Social Science & Medicine, 171, 58-66.
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Boylan, J. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2015). High anger expression exacerbates the relationship between age and metabolic syndrome. journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 70(1), 77-82.
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Ryff, C. D., Boylan, J. M., Coe, C. L., Karasawa, M., Kawakami, N., Kitayama, S., Kan, C., Love, G. D., Levine, C. L., Markus, H. R., Miyamoto, Y., Nakahara, J., & Park, J. (2015). Adult development in Japan and the U.S.: Comparing theories and findings about growth, maturity, and well-being. In L. Jensen (Ed.), Oxford handbook of human development and culture: An interdisciplinary perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Kitayama, S., Park, J., Boylan, J., Miyamoto, Y., Levine, C., Markus, H. R., Karasawa, M., Coe, C., Kawakami, N., Love, G., & Ryff, C. (2015). Expression of anger and ill health in two cultures: An examination of inflammation and cardiovascular risk Psychological Science, 26(2), 211-220.
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Cornman, J. C., Glei, D. A., Goldman, N., Ryff, C. D., & Weinstein, M. (2015). Socioeconomic status and biological markers of health: An examination of adults in the United States and Taiwan. Journal of Aging and Health, 27(1), 75-102.
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Boylan, J. M., Lewis, T. T., Coe, C. L., & Ryff, C. D. (2015). Educational status, anger, and inflammation in the MIDUS national sample: Does race matter? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 49(4), 570-578.
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Ryff, C. D., Miyamoto, Y., Boylan, J. M., Coe, C. L., Karasawa, M., Kawakami, N., Kan, C., Love, G. D., Levine, C., Markus, H. R., Park, J., & Kitayama, S. (2015). Culture, inequality, and health: Evidence from the MIDUS and MIDJA comparison. Culture and Brain, 3(1), 1-20.
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Boehm, J. K., Chen, Y., Williams, D. R., Ryff, C., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2015). Unequally distributed psychological assets: Are there social disparities in optimism, life satisfaction, and positive affect? PLoS ONE, 10(2), 1-16.
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Boylan, J. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2015). Psychological well-being and metabolic syndrome: Findings from the Midlife in the United States national sample. Psychosomatic Medicine, 77(5), 548-558.
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Amaral, W. Z., Krueger, R. F., Ryff, C. D., & Coe, C. L. (2015). Genetic and environmental determinants of population variation in interleukin-6, its soluble receptor and C-reactive protein: Insights from identical and fraternal twins. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 49, 171-181.
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Costello-White, R., Ryff, C. D., & Coe, C. L. (2015). Aging and low-grade inflammation reduce renal function in middle-aged and older adults in Japan and the USA. Age, 37(4), Article 75.
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Ryff, C. D., Radler, B. T., & Friedman, E. M. (2015). Persistent psychological well-being predicts improved self-rated health over 9-10 years: Longitudinal evidence from MIDUS. Health Psychology Open, 2(2).
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Tsenkova, V. K., Carr, D., Coe, C. L., & Ryff, C. D. (2014). Anger, adiposity, and glucose control in nonidabetic adults: Findings from MIDUS II. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37(1), 37-46.
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Song, J., Mailick, M. R., Ryff, C. D., Coe, C. L., Greenberg, J. S., & Hong, J. (2014). Allostatic load in parents of children with developmental disorders: Moderating influence of positive affect. Journal of Health Psychology, 19(2), 262-272.
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Kan, C., Kawakami, N., Karasawa, M., Love, G. D., Coe, C. L., Miyamoto, Y., Ryff, C. D., Kitayama, S., Curhan, K. B., & Markus, H. R. (2014). Psychological resources as mediators of the association between social class and health: Comparative findings from Japan and the U.S. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(1), 53-65.
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Ryff, C. D., Love, G. D., Miyamoto, Y., Markus, H. R., Curhan, K. B., Kitayama, S., Park, J., Kawakami, N., Kan, C., & Karasawa, M. (2014). Culture and the promotion of well-being in East and West: Understanding varieties of attunement to the surrounding context. In G. A. Fava & C. Ruini (Eds.), Increasing psychological well-being in clinical and education settings: Interventions and cultural contexts. New York, Springer.
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Ryff, C. D. (2014). Psychological well-being revisited: Advances in the science and practice of eudaimonia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(1), 10-28.
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Lapate, R. C., van Reekum, C. M., Schaefer, S. M., Greischar, L. L., Norris, C. J., Bachhuber, D. R., Ryff, C. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2014). Prolonged marital stress is associated with reduced maintenance of the response to positive stimuli. Psychophysiology, 51(6), 499-509.
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Curhan, K. B., Levine, C. S., Markus, H. R., Kitayama, S., Park, J., Karasawa, M., Kawakami, N., Love, G. D., Coe, C. L., Miyamoto, Y., & Ryff, C. D. (2014). Subjective and objective hierarchies and their relations to psychological well-being: A US /Japan comparison. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(8), 855-864.
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Ryff, C. D. (2014). Self-realisation and meaning making in the face of adversity: A eudaimonic approach to human resilience. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 24(1), 1-12.
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Curhan, K. B., Sims, T., Markus, H. R., Kitayama, S., Karasawa, M., Kawakami, N., Love, G. D., Coe, C. L., Miyamoto, Y., & Ryff, C. D. (2014). Just how bad negative affect is for your health depends on culture. Psychological Science, 25(12), 2277-2280.
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Park, J., Kitayama, S., Karasawa, M., Curhan, K., Markus, H. R., Kawakami, N., Miyamoto, Y., Love, G.D., Coe, C.L., Ryff, C. D. (2013). Clarifying the links between social support and health: Culture, stress, and neuroticism matter. Journal of Health Psychology, 18(2), 226-235.
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Boehm, J. K., Williams, D. R., Rimm, E., Ryff, C. D., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2013). The association between optimism and serum antioxidants in the Midlife in the United States Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75(1), 2-10.
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Ryff, C.D. (2013). Eudaimonic well-being and health: Mapping consequences of self-realization. In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonia. (pp. 77-98). Washington, DC US: American Psychological Association.
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Boehm, J. K., Williams, D. R., Rimm, E. B., Ryff, C., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2013). Relation between optimism and lipids in midlife. The American Journal of Cardiology, 111(10), 1425-1431.
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Kimhy, D., Crowley, O. V., McKinley, P. S., Burg, M. M., Lachman, M. E., Tun, P. A., Ryff, C. D., Seeman, T. E., & Sloan, R. P. (2013). The association of cardiac vagal control and executive functioning- findings from the MIDUS study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(5), 628-635.
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Fuller-Rowell, T. E., Love, G. D., Williams, D. R., McKinely, P. S., Sloan, R. P., & Ryff, C. D. (2013). Race differences in age trends of autonomic nervous system functioning. Journal of Aging and Health, 25(5), 839-862.
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Swann, J. R., Spagou, K., Lewis, M., Nicholson, J. K., Glei, D. A., Seeman, T. E., Coe, C. L., Goldman, N., Ryff, C. D., Weinstein, M., & Holmes, E. (2013). Microbial-mammalian co-metabolites dominate the age-associated urinary metabolic phenotype in Taiwanese and American populations. Journal of Proteome Research, 12(7), 3166-3180.
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Tsenkova, V., Boylan, J. M., & Ryff, C. (2013). Stress eating and health: Findings from MIDUS, a national Study of U.S. Adults. Appetite, 69, 151-155.
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Slopen, N., Kontos, E. Z., Ryff, C. D., Ayanian, J. Z., Albert, M. A., & Williams, D. R. (2013). Psychosocial stress and cigarette smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States. Cancer Causes & Control, 24(10), 1849-1863.
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Boylan, J. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2013). Varieties of anger and the inverse link between education and inflammation: Toward an integrative framework. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75(6), 566-574.
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Heller, A. S., van Reekum, C. M., Schaefer, S. M., Lapate, R. C., Radler, B. T., Ryff, C. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Sustained ventral striatal activity predicts eudaimonic well-being and cortisol output. Psychological Science. Advance online publication.
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Miyamoto, Y., Boylan, J. M., Coe, C. L., Curhan, K. B., Levine, C. S., Markus, H. R., Park, J., Kitayama, S., Kawakami, N., Karasawa, M., Love, G. D., & Ryff, C. D. (2013). Negative emotions predict elevated interleukin-6 in the United States but not in Japan. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 34, 79-85.
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Park, J., Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., Coe, C. L., Miyamoto, Y., Karasawa, M., Curhan, K. B., Love, G. D., Kawakami, N., Boylan, J. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2013). Social status and anger expression: The cultural moderation hypothesis. Emotion, 13(6), 1122-1131.
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Schaefer, S. M., Boylan, J. M., Van Reekum, C. M., Lapate, R. C., Norris, C. J., Ryff, C. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Purpose in life predicts better emotional recovery from negative stimuli. PLoS ONE. Advance online publication.
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Turiano, N. A., Pitzer, L., Armour, C., Karlamangla, A., Ryff, C. D., & Mroczek, D. K. (2012). Personality trait level and change as predictors of health outcomes: Findings from a national study of Americans (MIDUS). The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67(1), 4-12.
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Costanzo, E. S., Stawski, R. S., Ryff, C. D., Coe, C. L., & Almeida, D. (2012). Cancer survivors' responses to daily stress: Implications for quality of life. Health Psychology, 31(3), 360-370.
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Tsenkova, V. K., Albert, M., Georgiades, A., & Ryff, C. (2012). Trait anxiety and glucose metabolism in people without diabetes: Vulnerabilities among Black women. Diabetic Medicine, 29(6), 803-806.
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Friedman, E. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2012). Theoretical perspectives: A biopsychosocial approach to positive aging. In S. K. Whitbourne & M. J. Sliwinski (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of adulthood and aging. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing.

Glei, D. A., Goldman, N., Ryff, C. D., Lin, Y.-H., & Weinstein, M. (2012). Social relationships and inflammatory markers: An analysis of Taiwan and the U.S. Social Science & Medicine, 74(12), 1891-1899.
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Javaras, K. N., Schaefer, S. M., van Reekum, C. M., Lapate, R. C., Greischar, L. L., Bachhuber, D. R., Love, G. D., Ryff, C. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2012). Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion. Emotion, 12(5), 875-881.
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Friedman, E. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2012). Living well with medical comorbidities: A biopsychosocial perspective. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67(5), 535-544.
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Ryff, C. D., Friedman, E., Fuller-Rowell, T., Love, G., Morozink, J., Radler, B., Tsenkova, V., Miyamoto, Y. (2012). Varieties of resilience in MIDUS. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(11), 792-806.
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Slopen, N., Dutra, L. M., Williams, D. R., Mujahid, M. S., Lewis, T. T., Bennett, G. G., Ryff, C. D., Albert, M. A. (2012). Psychosocial stressors and cigarette smoking among African American adults in midlife. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 14(10), 1161-1169.
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Tsenkova, V. K., Carr, D., Coe, C. L., & Ryff, C. D. (2012). Synergistic effect of neuroticism and body mass index on glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics.
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Ryff, C. D. (2012). Varieties of resilience and their biological underpinnings. European Health Psychologist, 14(3), 70-75.
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Ryff, C. D., Friedman, E. M., Morozink, J. A., & Tsenkova, V. (2012). Chapter 4: Psychological resilience in adulthood and later life: Implications for health. In J. Hayslip, Bert & G. Smith (Eds.), Annual review of gerontology and geriatrics: Emerging perspectives on resilience in adulthood and later life (Vol. 32, pp. 73-92).

Coe, C. L., Love, G. D., Karasawa, M., Kawakami, N., Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., Tracy, R. P., & Ryff, C. D. (2011). Population differences in proinflammatory biology: Japanese have healthier profiles than Americans. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 25(3), 494-502.
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Tsenkova, V. K., Carr, D., Schoeller, D. A., & Ryff, C. D. (2011). Perceived weight discrimination amplifies the link between central adiposity and nondiabetic glycemic control (HbA(1c)). Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 41(2), 243-251.
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Karasawa, M., Curhan, K. B., Markus, H. R., Kitayama, S. S., Love, G. D., Radler, B. T., & Ryff, C. D. (2011). Cultural perspectives on aging and well-being: A comparison between Japan and the US. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 73(1), 73-98.
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Crowley, O. V., McKinley, P. S., Burg, M. M., Schwartz, J. E., Ryff, C. D., Weinstein, M., Seeman, T. E., & Sloan, R. P. (2011). The interactive effect of change in perceived stress and trait anxiety on vagal recovery from cognitive challenge. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 82(3), 225-232.
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Radler, B. T., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Who participates? Accounting for longitudinal retention in the MIDUS National Study of Health and Well-Being. Journal of Aging and Health, 22(3), 307-331.
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Shcheslavskaya, O. V., Burg, M. M., McKinley, P. S., Schwartz, J. E., Gerin, W., Ryff, C. D., Weinstein, M., Seeman, T., Sloan, R. P. (2010). Heart rate recovery after cognitive challenge is preserved with age. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(2), 128-133.
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Slopen, N., Lewis, T. T., Gruenewald, T. L., Mujahid, M. S., Ryff, C. D., Albert, M. A., & Williams, D. R. (2010). Early life adversity and inflammation in African Americans and Whites in the Midlife in the United States survey. Psychosomatic Medicine, 42(7), 694-701.
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Love, G. D., Seeman, T. E., Weinstein, M., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Bioindicators in the MIDUS national study: Protocol, measures, sample and comparative context. Journal of Aging and Health, 22(8), 1059-1080.
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Morozink, J. A., Friedman, E. M., Coe, C. L., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Socioeconomic and psychosocial predictors of interleukin-6 in the MIDUS national sample. Health Psychology, 29(6), 626-635.
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Charles, S. T., Luong, G., Almeida, D. M., Ryff, C., Sturm, M., & Love, G. (2010). Fewer ups and downs: Daily stressors mediate age differences in negative affect. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65B(3), 279-286.

Miyamoto, Y., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Cultural differences in the dialectical and non-dialectical emotional styles and their implications for health. Cognition & Emotion, 25(1), 22-39.
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Kitayama, S., Karasawa, M., Curhan, K. B., Ryff, C. D., & Markus, H. R. (2010). Independence and interdependence predict health and wellbeing: Divergent patterns in the United States and Japan. Frontiers in Psychology, 1(Article 163), 1-10.
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Costanzo, E.S., Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B.H. (2009). Psychosocial adjustment among cancer survivors: Findings from a National Survey of Health and Well-Being. Health Psychology, 28(2), 147-156.
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Friedman, E.M., Williams, D.R., Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2009). Chronic discrimination predicts higher circulating levels of E-selectin in a national sample: The MIDUS study. Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 23(5), 684-692.
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Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B.H. (2009). Understanding healthy aging: Key components and their integration. In V. Bengtson, D. Gans, N.M. Putney, & M. Silverstein (Eds.), Handbook of theories of aging, 2nd Edition (pp. 117-144). New York: Springer.

Gruenewald, T.L., Mroczek, D.K., Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B.H. (2008). Diverse pathways to positive and negative affect in adulthood and later life: An integrative approach using recursive partitioning. Developmental Psychology, 44(2), 330-343.
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Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B.H. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 13-39.
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Lachman, M.E., Rocke, C., Rosnick, C., & Ryff, C.D. (2008). Realism and illusion in Americans' temporal views of their life satisfaction: Age differences in reconstructing the past and anticipating the future. Psychological Science, 19(9), 889-897.
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Tsenkova, V., Love, G.D., Singer, B., & Ryff, C.D. (2008). Coping and positive affect predict longitudinal change in glycosylated hemoglobin. Health Psychology, 27, S163-71.

Friedman, E.M., Hayney, M. Love, G.D., Singer, B.L., & Ryff, C.D. (2007). Plasma interleukin-6 and soluble IL-6 receptions are associated with psychological well-being in aging women. Health Psychology, 26, 305-313.

Friedman, E.M., Love, G.D., Rosenkranz, M.A., Urry, H.L., Davidson, R.J., Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2007). Socioeconomic status predicts objective and subjective sleep quality in aging women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 682-691.

Tsenkova, V., Love, G.D., Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2007). Socioeconomic status and psychological well-being predict cross-time change in glycosylated hemoglobin in older women without diabetes. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 777-784.

Ahrens, C. J. C., & Ryff, C. D. (2006). Multiple roles and well-being: Sociodemographic and psychological moderators. Sex Roles, 55(11-12), 801-815.
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Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2006). Best news yet on the six-factor model of well-being. Social Science Research, 35, 1103-1119.
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Ryff, C. D., Love, G. D., Urry, H. L., Muller, D., Rosenkranz, M. A., Friedman, E. M., Davidson, R. J., & Singer, B. H. (2006). Psychological well-being and ill-being: Do they have distinct or mirrored biological correlates? Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 75, 85-95.

Friedman, E. M., Hayney, M. S., Love, G. D., Urry, H. L., Rosenkranz, M. A., Davidson, R. J., Singer, B. H., & Ryff, C. D. (2005). Social relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 18757-18762.

Brim, O. G., Ryff, C. D., & Kessler, R. C. (2004). The MIDUS national survey: An overview. In O. G. Brim, C. D. Ryff, & R. C. Kessler (Eds.), How healthy are we?: A national study of well-being at midlife (pp.1-36). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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Markus, H. R., Ryff, C. D., Barnett, K. L., & Palmersheim, K.A. (2004). In their own words: Well-being at midlife among high school and college educated adults. In O. G. Brim, C. D. Ryff, & R. C. Kessler (Eds.), How healthy are we?: A national study of well-being at midlife (273-319). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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Ryff, C. D., Keyes, C. L. M., & Hughes, D. L. (2004). Psychological well-being in MIDUS: Profiles of ethnic/racial diversity and life course uniformity. In O. G. Brim, C. D. Ryff, & R. C. Kessler (Eds.), How healthy are we?: A national study of well-being at midlife (pp. 398-424). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Palmersheim, K. A. (2004). Social inequalities in health and well-being: The role of relational and religious protective factors. In O. G. Brim, C. D. Ryff, & R. C. Kessler (Eds.), How healthy are we?: A national study of well-being at midlife (pp. 90-123). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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Urry, H. L., Nitschke, J. B., Dolski, I., Jackson, D. C., Dalton, K. M., Mueller, C. J., Rosenkranz, M. A., Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Davidson, R. J. (2004). Making a life worth living: Neural correlates of well-being. Psychological Science, 15, 367-372.

Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Love, G. D. (2004). Positive health: Connecting well-being with biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B Biological Sciences, 359, 1383-1394.

Brim, O. G., Ryff, C. D., & Kessler, R. C. (Eds.) (2004). How healthy are we?: A national study of well-being at midlife Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Ryff, C. D., Keyes, C. L. M., & Hughes, D. L. (2003). Status inequalities, perceived discrimination, and eudaimonic well-being: Do the challenges of minority life hone purpose and growth? Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 44(3), 275-291.
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Hayney, M.S., Love, G.D., Buck, J. M., Ryff, C.D., Singer, B., & Muller, D. (2003). The association between psychosocial factors and vaccine induced-cytokine production. Vaccine, 21, 2428-2432.

Kwan, C.M.L., Love, G.D., Ryff, C.D., & Essex, M.J. (2003). The role of self-enhancing evaluations in a successful life transition. Psychology and Aging, 18(1), 3-12.

Keyes, C. L. M., Shmotkin, D., & Ryff, C. D. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 1007-1022.
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Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2002). From social structure to biology: Intergrative science in pursuit of human health and well-being. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology. London: Oxford University Press.
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Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Seltzer, M. M. (2002). Pathways through challenge: Implications for well-being and health. In L. Pulkkinen & A. Caspi (Eds.), Paths to successful development: Personality in the life course (pp. 302-328). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Seeman, T. E., Singer, B. H., Ryff, C. D., Dienberg Love, G., & Levy-Storms, L. (2002). Social relationships, gender, and allostatic load across two age coherts. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64(3), 395-406.

Seeman, T.E., Singer, B., Ryff, C., & Levy-Storms, L. (2002). Social relationships, gender, and allostatic load across two age cohorts. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 395-406.

Markus, H. R., Ryff, C. D., Conner, A. L., Pudberry, E. K., & Barnett, K. L. (2001). Themes and variations in American understandings of responsibility. In A. S. Rossi (Ed.), Caring and doing for others: Social responsibility in the domains of family, work, and community. Chicago: The Chicago University Press.
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Ryff, C. D., Kwan, C. M. L., & Singer, B. H. (2001). Personality and aging: Flourishing agendas and future challenges. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (5th ed., pp. 477-499). San Diego: Academic Press.

Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., Wing, E., & Love, G. D. (2001). Elective affinities and uninvited agonies: Mapping emotion with significant others onto health. In C. D. Ryff & B. H. Singer (Eds.), Emotion, social relationships, and health (pp. 133-175). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
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Keyes, C. L. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2000). Subjective change and mental health: A self-concept theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(3), 264-279.
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Ryff, C. D., Magee, W. J., Kling, K. C., & Wing, E. H. (1999). Forging macro-micro linkages in the study of psychological well-being. In C. D. Ryff & V. W. Marshall (Eds.), The self and society in aging processes (pp. 247-278). New York: Springer.
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Keyes, C. L. M., & Ryff, C. D. (1998). Generativity in adult lives: Social structural contours and quality of life consequences. In D. P. McAdams & E. de St. Aubin (Eds.), Generativity and adult development: How and why we care for the next generation (pp. 227-263). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
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Marmot, M. G., Fuhrer, R., Ettner, S. L., Marks, N. F., Bumpass, L. L., & Ryff, C. D. (1998). Contribution of psychosocial factors to socioeconomic differences in health. Milbank Quarterly, 76(3), 403-448.
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Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., Love, G. D., & Essex, M. J. (1998). Resilience in adulthood and later life: Defining features and dynamic processes. In J. Lomranz (Ed.), Handbook of aging and mental health: An integrative approach (pp. 69-96). New York: Plenum Press..

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 69(4), 719-727.
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Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069-1081.
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